What is a precedent?
Precedent literally means ‘what went before, let it stand’. There are three types of precedent: original, binding, and persuasive. Precedent is known as a common law, whereby judges, in the interests of fairness and consistency, follow principles established in the previous decisions on a similar legal point of an equal or superior court.
Original precedent arises where the point of law in the case before the court has never been considered before and there has been no previous judicial decision on it. In such cases, the judge must use his or her own discretion in reaching a final judgment. They will generally adopt an approach known as reasoning by analogy, whereby they will looks at cases which involve a similar principle to the one they are dealing with and apply similar rules.
Binding precedent is ‘normal’ precedent. It requires a court to follow a previous court decision made in a previous case in the same way. For a precedent to be binding on a judge in a later case, the material facts of the two cases must be similar. The precedent is only binding on courts lower or equal to the court where the precedent was made.
Persuasive precedent is where a lower court makes a decision and a higher court can or may be allowed to use the precedent or decision, but they are not legally obliged to. There have been cases where lawyers will bring up evidence to show that the material facts of their case was the same as a decision made in an inferior court. It is up to the judge to decide if the case is sufficiently similar to allow them to take the merits of the case into consideration when they are making their judgment.
How can precedents be avoided?
A judge can refuse to follow a precedent, even if it appears to be binding in the following circumstances:
- Where the decision was made per incuriam – ie, it was reached in a way which – either through carelessness or forgetfulness – was inconsistent with a statutory provision. Overruling – where a decision made in a lower court is overturned because the judges hearing a case in a higher court do not agree with it. The previous decision will stand but will not be followed in later cases. Reversing – upon successful appeal to a higher court, if the lower court wrongly interpreted the law, the higher court could reverse the lower court’s decision, overruling its statement of law.
For more information on:
- When can precedent be used?
- What is ‘without precedent’?