If I am to enter into a contract with a minor is there anything which I should be aware of?
What is meant by a minor?
A minor is someone under the 18 years according to the Births and Deaths Registration Amendment Act (No 1) 2002.
The Age of Majority
Anyone over the age of 18 is said to be over the age of majority. Prior to 2002 the age of majority was 21, being reduced by this act.
Contracting with a minor
In what situations would I need to contract with a minor?
There are many situations in which minors would have to enter into contracts, for example when purchasing something they may be required to sign the terms and conditions of sale for particular goods. When purchasing goods they may also enter into an agreement in relation to a warranty.
There may also be times in the sporting context whereby a contract would be entered by a minor; this could even be in relation to their potential employment or for the potential for someone to be employed on their behalf.
Accordingly you can contract with someone under the age of majority, you must just be aware of certain factors when doing so.
The general position when contracting with a minor
In order to form a legally binding contract the general elements of a contract must be present, for example there must have been an offer, acceptance and an intention to form a legally binding contract. Without all of these elements being in place a contract will not be legally binding.
If all these elements are in place a contract with be legally binding, however, the law presumes that certain people do not have the power to enter into a contract. If you have the above elements and enter into a contract with one of the following kinds of people the contract will be void:
- Children under 7 years of age
- People who are diagnosed as mentally insane
- People whose judgement has been impaired by being very drunk or drugged
There is no exception in the law along the above lines for a minor meaning that a minor is free to enter into a contract with the contract being legally valid.
However, there is an assumption made by the law that a minor cannot fully understand the implications of a contract.
The implications of a contact
If a minor is assumed not to understand the implications of a contract a minor will remain fully protected by the law even if this is to the disadvantage of the other party and regardless of what clauses have been inserted into the contract.
A contract entered into with a minor is voidable. This means that the minor is able to cancel any contract at any time prior to reaching the age of majority and for a reasonable time afterwards.
Will a minor have to have a justifiable reason for this?
There is no requirement for a minor to have a justifiable reason for cancelling the contract at any time, they can do it for whatever reason and if they feel it may be advantageous for them to do so.
All of the above is designed specifically to protect those under the age of majority when entering into a legally binding contract.
For more information on:
- Are there any exceptions to the general rules in relation to minors?
- What is the reason for this?
- Does this apply to all contracts entered into by children?
- What is the case if the child is not deemed old enough?
- Court Enforcing a contract
- What options for a remedy will be available in this situation?
- Is there a way around this position?
- What is meant by a guarantor?
- Entering into a contract with the guardian