The nature of trusts and trust types
A trust is a way of holding property rights,where that property is managed by one person, known as the trustee, for the benefit of another, known as the beneficiary. In essence, the trustee holds the legal title to the trust property but is required to do so for the benefit of one or more persons, usually specified by the settler, who hold the equitable title.
Therefore, a trust is purely equitable obligation and could be enforced only in courts where equity is administered.
There are currently a number of different types of trusts. The most commonly used one is express trust, where the disposer expressly identifies the beneficiary and the purpose of the trust if there is one. Other common types of trusts in practice include:
Non-charitable purpose trust;
These categories are not strictly defined and can often overlap in their application.
A resulting trust is a creation of an implied trust by operation of law, whereas an express trust is created by the intention of the disposer.
A resulting trust is a situation in which a transferee is required by equity to hold property on trust for the transferor or for another who provided the purchase money for the transfer.
The name comes from the understanding that the beneficial interest results, in other words comes back to the transferor or to the party making the payment.
When does a resulting trust arise?
In practice, resulting trusts are of two kinds. A presumed resulting trust is created by a rebuttable presumption of intention that property purchased by one party but vested in another’s name should be held by that other on trust for the first party to the extent of his share in the purchase. Similarly, where there is a transfer by one party into the name of another or in their joint names, there is a presumption of a resulting trust for the first party.
Secondly, where property is conveyed to a person in the capacity of a trustee, there will be an irrebutable presumption of resulting trust for the disposer of any or part of the beneficial interest which is not disposed of.
A constructive trust is another example of trust which arises by operation of law and not through the express or implied intentions of the settler.
There is no strict definition of constructive trust and therefore the concept is up to date used as a means of furthering the legal principles of property law.
For more information on:
- In practice
- Non-charitable purpose trust
- Charitable purpose trust