Sexual Offences, Consent and HIV

Sexual offences and consent

One of the key factors to consider when trying to establish whether a sexual offence has occurred is consent.

For example if an individual person is forced to have sex with another against their will, i.e. without giving their consent, then the individual who committed the act will be guilty of rape.

Beyond a reasonable doubt

In order for an individual to be found guilty of a sexual offence it is necessary to prove beyond a reasonable doubt that the individual did not consent to the act taking place.

Capacity to consent

In some situations certain individuals will not be deemed to have been able to give consent, i.e. they do not have the capacity to consent. This involves the following individuals:

  •       Minors
  •       Individuals suffering with mental capacity

In this case it is immaterial to prove beyond a reasonable doubt that consent was not given. In these cases consent is deemed never to be given.

Consent obtained by deception

In certain cases an individual will have consented to the act taking place but this consent was only given due to the actor obtaining this consent by deception.

What is meant by consent by deception?

In the situation whereby an individual has deceived another individual into performing a sexual act consent will be removed when the deception occurs in relation to one of the following:

  •       The nature of the Act
  •       The identity of the actor

Will a situation whereby an individual does not disclose the fact that they have been diagnosed with HIV fall into one of these categories?

A case in 2006 dealt with the situation whereby an individual had sexual intercourse with the claimant. That individual was HIV positive and failed to disclose this fact to the complainant.

The case came before the Court of Appeal and the question to decide was whether the apparent consent given by the complainant was ineffective as a result of the individual’s failure to disclose his status.

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For more information on:

  • What was the decision of the Court of Appeal in this case?
  • Are there any arguments against this position?
  • Are there any arguments in favour of maintaining the current position?