Chanting at football grounds has been recognised as part and parcel of the game for years and is something which is seen as ingrained in the culture of our nation’s favourite sport. Furthermore it is a practice which is encouraged by clubs in order to create an atmosphere at the ground in order for the fans to get behind their team.
The 12th man
So often when talking about football matches we here talk of the 12th man – i.e. that the fans get behind their team so much that it is like the team has an extra man on the pitch. This 12th man can be created by the fans cheering on their own players but also by creating an intimidating atmosphere for the opposition players.
Intimidating atmosphere for opposition players
There are certain grounds in the UK which opposition players are treated to such loud dissent that it becomes an increasingly intimidating place to visit – on many occasions this can really affect the performance of these players. Clearly this is something which will be encouraged by the club if it helps them win football matches. However, sometimes this can go too far and when it does the law can step in.
What does the law say?
The Football Offences Act 1991
Under the Football Offences Act 1991 there exists an offence of indecent or racialist chanting. For this offence to be proven the chanting has to have been either due to the race of one of the players or regarded as indecent.
Racial chanting has been a problem which has existed within football for many years and is something that football clubs in England and the Football Association have tried to eradicate through the FA’s Kick Racism out of Football campaign.
For racist chanting to occur it will have to be proven that the chanting is in fact racist. This may be something which is sometimes difficult to establish. During a 2008 derby match from the North-east of England an Egyptian player on the away side was subjected to Islamaphobic taunting from a section of the home fans. In this case the accused fans claimed that they were simply referring to the Egyptian player’s likeness to the infamous shoe bomber Richard Reid. They claimed that the chant was therefore not racist and was in fact humorous. The court in this case disagreed with them and they were prosecuted under the Football Offences Act.
Chanting directed at players of their own team
The issue of racial chanting brings up the situation where one team may be making comments towards one of their own players which they may regard as humorous. For example one player in the Premier League who originates from Asia is sung about by his home fans in relation to the particular culinary persuasions of his people. Whether this would be regarded as racialist chanting under the act remains to be seen.
Proving whether a chant is in fact indecent is a much more difficult task than proving that a chant is racist. This is due to their being little definition of what is meant by indecent by the Act. Cases will have to be assessed on an individual basis and will depend fully on the individual facts of each case.
When looking at a high profile case from 2009 the judge stated that the following things should be taken into account when deciding whether chanting was offensive:
Whether decent members of the public found this offensive – this can be established from the reactions of the fans in the surrounding seats
Whether or not the coaching staff found this offensive – this can often be established if a club has made a formal complaint about the abuse suffered
It is immaterial whether the player in fact found the chanting offensive – footballers may regard being abused as part and parcel of the game, this however, should not detract from the fact that individuals should be punished
For more information on:
- What were the issues identified in the case?
- What is the likely punishment for an offence under the Football Offences Act?
- Poor taste versus indecent
- Issues dealt with internally by clubs and football authorities