Evidence in criminal proceedings
There are several types of evidence which may or may not be admissible in relation to criminal proceedings. All depends on the nature of the evidence. Examples include oral evidence, documentary evidence, real evidence (e.g. the weapon), circumstantial evidence (e.g. fingerprints, motive). There are several factors which help in deciding whether the evidence is admissible or not. First of all, the evidence must be relevant to the facts of the case and must have sufficient weight in order for it to be admissible. However if the evidence is inadmissible the fact that it is relevant in the proceedings does not play any role. Evidence which is normally excluded is non-expert opinion evidence, evidence of bad character or previous convictions,hearsay evidence, privilege, public policy, confessions made by oppression, unreliable evidence or evidence which would have adverse effect on the proceedings. It is important that you are aware of what sort of evidence is admissible in relation to your proceedings.
Bad character evidence
In order to asses the credibility of the evidence it is helpful to have the knowledge of the past behaviour or character of the defendant. The question is whether this is admissible as it could considerably damage the defendant if he or she is of a bad character. The same test applies to the witnesses. The judge can sometimes make a direction for the jury which is called ‘Vye direction’ and this will draw the attention of the jury to the defendant’s good character which will have a positive effect on the proceedings. Evidence of a bad character refers mainly to the defendant’s previous convictions. Evidence of a bad character has also been defined as ‘evidence of or disposition towards, misconduct.’ Such misconduct was defined by the Criminal Justice Act and may include any disciplinary actions taken against the defendant by his employer, previous convictions and acquittals, or some other evidence given by a particular witness referring to the bad character of the defendant. There are some exceptions e.g. failure to attend the court or breach of the bail conditions which refer to the investigation of the offence for which the accused is prosecuted and these will not amount to the evidence of bad character.
Admissibility of evidence of bad character
According to the Criminal Justice Act there are some circumstances when bad character evidence is admissible. Thus, bad character evidence can be used to prove that a particular person is not credible enough and there is a propensity to commit crime. Such propensity to commit a crime was again defined by the Act and includes offences of the same or similar description or category. The courts also look at propensity for untruthfulness e.g. offences of dishonesty, deception etc. As in accordance with the Criminal Justice Act there are 7 circumstances where such evidence is admissible. It is the responsibility of the prosecution to prove that one of the seven circumstances applies. The evidence is therefore admissible only IF 1.all the parties to the criminal proceedings agree to such evidence being admitted, or 2. The evidence is adduced by the defendant or obtained in cross-examination and intended to be explained, or 3. It is essential explanatory evidence, or 4.it is relevant to the proceedings especially to the issue between the defence and the prosecution, or 5. It has a great value in relation to a matter between the defendant and the co-defendant, or 6. It is evidence which would correct false impressions made by the defendant or 7. The defendant made an attack on some other person’s character. In all those circumstances the evidence of bad character would be admissible.
For more information on:
- Admissibility of confessions